<aside> 💡 Please note that we sunset Hoaxlines Lab in 2023, and this page is outdated. The classification system has been updated and expanded since this publication. For more information, contact



Who is this research for, and how do you use it?

This resource is designed for researchers, journalists, policymakers, and anyone interested in understanding the dynamics of information ecosystems, particularly those influenced by state actors. A key element of this system is that it recognizes that not all parties that are a part of and that support proregime ecosystems necessarily do so willfully.

It provides a methodology for identifying and classifying sources based on their behavior rather than opinion or speculation. This approach reduces bias and improves the consistency and reproducibility of research.

Use cases for this resource may include:

What does it mean for a source to be included in an ecosystem?

The inclusion of a source does not inherently indicate anything negative. We define "proregime" as framing, arguments, or ideas endorsed, promoted, or implied by regime officials, employees, representatives, allies, or contract workers. The "proregime" label does not indicate whether something is true, false, misleading, or otherwise.

The only information that can be gleaned from a source’s inclusion in a specific ecosystem is that it met the criteria outlined below for inclusion. This system recognizes and hopes to highlight that people can unknowingly support proregime information networks; whether it's intentional matters little, as this is not something that search engines and algorithms can discern or consider.

Whether the classification as a proregime website is positive or negative goes beyond the scope of this methodology and is not addressed. Outlets are classified as Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3. Subtypes include Multistate and Interface, so far. There are more Subtypes that will be added in the future.

Criteria for inclusion in a proregime ecosystem

Entities included in this information ecosystem report met one of three criteria.